2011年11月23日水曜日

Ubiquity and Specificity of Reinforcement Signals throughout the Human Brain

Vickery TJ, Chun MM, and Lee D
Neuron, Volume 72, Issue 1, 166-177, 6 October 2011

コイン合わせゲーム中の脳活動をfMRIで計測、サポート・ベクター・マシンを用いて解析。メインの結論は「前帯状皮質の活動から次の行動が予測できる!」ではなく、「報酬・罰は(線条体や眼窩前頭野だけでなく)脳全体でコードされている」ということ。 http://1.usa.gov/t0FOfn

Reinforcements and punishments facilitate adaptive behavior in diverse domains ranging from perception to social interactions. A conventional approach to understanding the corresponding neural substrates focuses on the basal ganglia and its dopaminergic projections. Here, we show that reinforcement and punishment signals are surprisingly ubiquitous in the gray matter of nearly every subdivision of the human brain. Humans played either matching-pennies or rock-paper-scissors games against computerized opponents while being scanned using fMRI. Multivoxel pattern analysis was used to decode previous choices and their outcomes, and to predict upcoming choices. Whereas choices were decodable from a confined set of brain structures, their outcomes were decodable from nearly all cortical and subcortical structures. In addition, signals related to both reinforcements and punishments were recovered reliably in many areas and displayed patterns not consistent with salience-based explanations. Thus, reinforcement and punishment might play global modulatory roles in the entire brain.

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