Nicholas Furl and Bruno B. Averbeck
J. Neurosci. 2011;31 17572-17582 Open Access
コストを支払って情報収集を続けるのか？さっさと決断するのか？人間は（ベイズ・モデルで計算された最適な行動に比べて）「さっさと決断してしまう」傾向にあり、Parietal CortexとInsulaが大きな役割を果たしている。 http://bit.ly/s7SHPK
Decisions are most effective after collecting sufficient evidence to accurately predict rewarding outcomes. We investigated whether human participants optimally seek evidence and we characterized the brain areas associated with their evidence seeking. Participants viewed sequences of bead colors drawn from hidden urns and attempted to infer the majority bead color in each urn. When viewing each bead color, participants chose either to seek more evidence about the urn by drawing another bead (draw choices) or to infer the urn contents (urn choices). We then compared their evidence seeking against that predicted by a Bayesian ideal observer model. By this standard, participants sampled less evidence than optimal. Also, when faced with urns that had bead color splits closer to chance (60/40 versus 80/20) or potential monetary losses, participants increased their evidence seeking, but they showed less increase than predicted by the ideal observer model. Functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that urn choices evoked larger hemodynamic responses than draw choices in the insula, striatum, anterior cingulate, and parietal cortex. These parietal responses were greater for participants who sought more evidence on average and for participants who increased more their evidence seeking when draws came from 60/40 urns. The parietal cortex and insula were associated with potential monetary loss. Insula responses also showed modulation with estimates of the expected gains of urn choices. Our findings show that participants sought less evidence than predicted by an ideal observer model and their evidence-seeking behavior may relate to responses in the insula and parietal cortex.