Lateral prefrontal cortex contributes to maladaptive decisions
PNAS 2012 109 (12) 4401-4406.
Gui Xue, Chi-Hung Juan, Chi-Fu Chang, Zhong-Lin Lu, and Qi Dong
ルーレットで「緑」が連続で出ると、「次は赤が出るだろう（ギャンブラーの誤り）」or「次も緑が出るだろう（強化学習）」と思う。前者には前頭前野外背側部、後者には大脳基底核・線条体が関与する。 http://www.pnas.org/content/109/12/4401 http://www.jneurosci.org/content/31/17/6296
Humans consistently make suboptimal decisions involving random events, yet the underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive. Using functional MRI and a matching pennies game that captured subjects’ increasing tendency to predict the break of a streak as it continued [i.e., the “gambler's fallacy” (GF)], we found that a strong blood oxygen level-dependent response in the left lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) to the current outcome preceded the use of the GF strategy 10 s later. Furthermore, anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the left LPFC, which enhances neuronal firing rates and cerebral excitability, increased the use of the GF strategy, and made the decisions more “sticky.” These results reveal a causal role of the LPFC in implementing suboptimal decision strategy guided by false world models, especially when such strategy requires great resources for cognitive control.