2013年8月29日木曜日

Early Experience Shapes Amygdala Sensitivity to Race: An International Adoption Design

Eva H. Telzer, Jessica Flannery, Mor Shapiro, Kathryn L. Humphreys, Bonnie Goff, Laurel Gabard-Durman, Dylan D. Gee, and Nim Tottenham
J. Neurosci. 2013;33 13484-13488

【背景/実験】
「幼少期に異人種との交流が全くない」ことが、成長後の「異人種に対する行動的/神経科学的反応」にどういう影響を与えるのか?
幼少期を東アジア/東ヨーロッパの児童養護施設で過ごし、その後、アメリカの家庭で育てられた人々を対象に実験。

【結果】
異人種の表情から感情を読み取るのが難しい。
また、異人種の顔に対して扁桃体(amygdala)が活動する。

In the current study, we investigated how complete infant deprivation to out-group race impacts behavioral and neural sensitivity to race. Although monkey models have successfully achieved complete face deprivation in early life, this is typically impossible in human studies. We overcame this barrier by examining youths with exclusively homogenous racial experience in early postnatal development. These were youths raised in orphanage care in either East Asia or Eastern Europe as infants and later adopted by American families. The use of international adoption bolsters confidence of infant exposure to race (e.g., to solely Asian faces or European faces). Participants completed an emotional matching task during functional MRI. Our findings show that deprivation to other-race faces in infancy disrupts recognition of emotion and results in heightened amygdala response to out-group faces. Greater early deprivation (i.e., later age of adoption) is associated with greater biases to race. These data demonstrate how early social deprivation to race shapes amygdala function later in life and provides support that early postnatal development may represent a sensitive period for race perception.

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