2013年8月8日木曜日

Orbitofrontal and striatal circuits dynamically encode the shift between goal-directed and habitual actions

Christina M. Gremel & Rui M. Costa
Nature Communications 4, Article number: 2264 doi:10.1038/ncomms3264

マウスの道具的条件づけ。
Devaluationパラダイムを用いることで、「目的指向(Goal directed)行動」と「習慣化(Habitual)行動」、それぞれを司る脳領域を調べた。

損傷研究の結果から、眼窩前島皮質(OFC)、背側線条体内側部(Dorsomedial Striatum)は目的指向行動に、背側線条体外側部(Dorsolateral Striatum)は習慣化行動に関与。さらに電気生理/光遺伝学的手法を用い、「それぞれの(同一の)ニューロンが活動パターンを変化させることで、目的指向行動から習慣化行動へ切り替わる」ことまで明らかにした。

損傷研究、電気生理、光遺伝学を併用…←すごい。

Shifting between goal-directed and habitual actions allows for efficient and flexible decision making. Here we demonstrate a novel, within-subject instrumental lever-pressing paradigm, in which mice shift between goal-directed and habitual actions. We identify a role for orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in actions following outcome revaluation, and confirm that dorsal medial (DMS) and lateral striatum (DLS) mediate different action strategies. Simultaneous in vivo recordings of OFC, DMS and DLS neuronal ensembles during shifting reveal that the same neurons display different activities depending on whether presses are goal-directed or habitual, with DMS and OFC becoming more and DLS less engaged during goal-directed actions. Importantly, the magnitude of neural activity changes in OFC following changes in outcome value positively correlates with the level of goal-directed behavior. Chemogenetic inhibition of OFC disrupts goal-directed actions, whereas optogenetic activation of OFC specifically increases goal-directed pressing. These results also reveal a role for OFC in action revaluation, which has implications for understanding compulsive behavior.

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