2013年9月10日火曜日

Why skill matters

Okihide Hikosaka, Shinya Yamamoto, Masaharu Yasuda, Hyoung F. Kim
Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 02 August 2013

スキル学習についての総説論文。
単位時間当たりの報酬量を最大化するための手段として「意思決定/行動のスピードアップ(つまり、スキル学習)」がある。その学習には、「最適な意思決定方法/行動を見つける(objects skill)」ことと「それを実行する(action skill)」が重要である。

Maximizing rewards per unit time is ideal for success and survival in humans and animals. This goal can be approached by speeding up behavior aiming at rewards and this is done most efficiently by acquiring skills. Importantly, reward-directed skills consist of two components: finding a good object (i.e., object skill) and acting on the object (i.e., action skill), which occur sequentially. Recent studies suggest that object skill is based on high-capacity memory for object–value associations. When a learned object is encountered the corresponding memory is quickly expressed as a value-based gaze bias, leading to the automatic acquisition or avoidance of the object. Object skill thus plays a crucial role in increasing rewards per unit time.

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