2014年6月5日木曜日

Value Signals in the Prefrontal Cortex Predict Individual Preferences across Reward Categories

Jörg Gross, Eva Woelbert, Jan Zimmermann, Sanae Okamoto-Barth, Arno
Riedl, and Rainer Goebel
The Journal of Neuroscience, 28 May 2014, 34(22):7580-7586;

「スナック菓子を食べる」vs.「スポーツをする」のような「種類の異なる選択肢間の比較」を行うためには、共通の尺度(効用)が脳内に必要になってくる。
もし共通の尺度があるなら、「種々のスナック菓子の価値に対する脳活動から種々のスポーツをする価値を予測する」ことができるはずだ。
→ 実際、fMRI MVPAを用いて、前頭前野の脳活動でその予測ができた。

Humans can choose between fundamentally different options, such as watching a movie or going out for dinner. According to the utility concept, put forward by utilitarian philosophers and widely used in economics, this may be accomplished by mapping the value of different options onto a common scale, independent of specific option characteristics (Fehr and Rangel, 2011; Levy and Glimcher, 2012). If this is the case, value-related activity patterns in the brain should allow predictions of individual preferences across fundamentally different reward categories. We analyze fMRI data of the prefrontal cortex while subjects imagine the pleasure they would derive from items belonging to two distinct reward categories: engaging activities (like going out for drinks, daydreaming, or doing sports) and snack foods. Support vector machines trained on brain patterns related to one category reliably predict individual preferences of the other category and vice versa. Further, we predict preferences across participants. These findings demonstrate that prefrontal cortex value signals follow a common scale representation of value that is even comparable across individuals and could, in principle, be used to predict choice.

0 件のコメント:

コメントを投稿